Water Features: The Minoan Culture

Archaeological digs in Minoan Crete in Greece have revealed some varieties of conduits. They not merely aided with the water supply, they removed rainwater and wastewater as well. The majority were created from clay or rock. download (27).jpeg When prepared from clay, they were commonly in the form of canals and spherical or rectangular pipes. Among these were terracotta conduits which were U shaped or a shortened, cone-like form which have only showed up in Minoan society. Knossos Palace had an state-of-the-art plumbing network made of terracotta pipes which ran up to three meters below ground. Along with distributing water, the terracotta conduits of the Minoans were also utilized to collect water and store it. Hence, these pipelines had to be ready to: Subterranean Water Transportation: It is not quite known why the Minoans wanted to move water without it being noticed. Quality Water Transportation: Bearing in mind the indicators, a number of historians suggest that these pipes were not connected to the prevalent water delivery system, providing the palace with water from a distinctive source.

Can Outdoor Water fountains Help Cleanse The Air?

An otherwise boring ambiance can be livened up with an indoor wall fountain. Pleasant to the senses and beneficial to your health, these indoor features are an excellent addition to your home. If you doubt the benefits of water fountains, just look at the research supporting this theory. Modern-day appliances produce positive ions which are balanced out by the negative ions discharged by water features. Undeniable favorable improvements in mental and physical health arise when negative ions overpower positive ions.

They also raise serotonin levels, so you start to feel more alert, relaxed and invigorated. Indoor wall fountains {generate negative ions which serve to heighten your mood and eliminate air pollutants. They also help to reduce allergies, pollutants as well as other types of irritants. And finally, water fountains are great at absorbing dust and microbes floating in the air and as a result in improving your general health.

Rome’s Early Water Delivery Solutions

Rome’s very first raised aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was built in 273 BC; before that, residents residing at higher elevations had to rely on natural creeks for their water. Over this period, there were only two other systems capable of delivering water to elevated areas, subterranean wells and cisterns, which gathered rainwater. From the early sixteenth century, water was routed to Pincian Hill by way of the subterranean channel of Acqua Vergine. As originally constructed, the aqueduct was provided along the length of its channel with pozzi (manholes) constructed at regular intervals. Whilst these manholes were developed to make it simpler and easier to sustain the aqueduct, it was also possible to use containers to remove water from the channel, which was carried out by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he purchased the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. Whilst the cardinal also had a cistern to accumulate rainwater, it didn’t supply enough water. To provide himself with a more streamlined means to obtain water, he had one of the manholes opened up, providing him access to the aqueduct below his property.

Creators of the First Water Features

Multi-talented individuals, fountain artists from the 16th to the late 18th century frequently served as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and highly educated scholars all in one person. Leonardo da Vinci as a imaginative master, inventor and scientific virtuoso exemplified this Renaissance master. He systematically reported his observations in his now much celebrated notebooks about his studies into the forces of nature and the properties and motion of water. Coupling imagination with hydraulic and horticultural expertise, early Italian fountain designers modified private villa settings into ingenious water exhibits loaded with symbolic meaning and natural beauty.

The magnificence in Tivoli were provided by the humanist Pirro Ligorio, who was celebrated for his skill in archeology, engineering and garden design. Well versed in humanistic themes and classic technical readings, some other water fountain creators were masterminding the fascinating water marbles, water attributes and water jokes for the countless mansions near Florence.

Statues As a Staple of Classic Art in Ancient Greece

The primitive Greeks manufactured the first freestanding statuary, an amazing achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. For the most part the statues, or kouros figures, were of young and nice-looking male or female (kore) Greeks. The kouroi were considered by the Greeks to represent beauty and were sculpted with one foot leading and an uncompromising firmness to their forward-facing poses; the male statues were always strapping, sinewy, and naked. In around 650 BC, the varieties of the kouroi became life-sized. During the Archaic period, a great time of change, the Greeks were evolving new forms of government, expressions of art, and a greater comprehension of people and cultures outside Greece. Battles like The Arcadian wars, the Spartan invasion of Samos, and other wars among city-states are suggestive of the disruptive nature of the time, which was similar to other periods of historical disturbance. However, these conflicts did not significantly hinder the advancement of the Greek civilization.

A Chronicle of Fountains

Pope Nicholas V, himself a well educated man, ruled the Roman Catholic Church from 1397 to 1455 during which time he commissioned many translations of ancient classic Greek documents into Latin. He undertook the beautification of Rome to make it into the model capital of the Christian world. In 1453 the Pope instigated the reconstruction of the Aqua Vergine, an ancient Roman aqueduct which had carried fresh drinking water into the city from eight miles away. The ancient Roman custom of building an awe-inspiring commemorative fountain at the point where an aqueduct arrived, also known as a mostra, was resurrected by Nicholas V. The present-day site of the Trevi Fountain was previously occupied by a wall fountain commissioned by the Pope and built by the architect Leon Battista Alberti. Changes and extensions, included in the repaired aqueduct, eventually provided the Trevi Fountain and the well-known baroque fountains in the Piazza del Popolo and Piazza Navona with the necessary water supply.

The Original Garden Fountain Manufacturers
Often serving as architects, sculptors, artists, engineers and cultivated scholars all in one, from the 16th to the late 18th century, fountain designers were multi-talented individuals, Leonardo da Vinci as a creative intellect, inventor... read more
Sculpture As a Staple of Classic Art in Ancient Greece
Up until the Archaic Greeks introduced the very first freestanding statuary, a remarkable success, carvings had primarily been accomplished in walls and pillars as reliefs. For the most part the... read more
"Primitive" Greek Art: Garden Statuary
The Archaic Greeks manufactured the 1st freestanding statuary, an amazing achievement as most sculptures up until then had been reliefs cut into walls and pillars. Kouros figures, statues of young, good-looking male or female (kore) Greeks, made up... read more
Innovative Wind Chimes
Manufacturers started producing the precision-tonal, intricate melodious chimes back that have become so trendy in the seventies. Nowadays, one can find ... read more


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