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Anglo-Saxon Gardens at the Time of the Norman Conquest

Anglo-Saxon Gardens Time Norman Conquest 838907617806504119.jpg The introduction of the Normans in the second half of the 11th century irreparably altered The Anglo-Saxon lifestyle. Engineering and horticulture were abilities that the Normans excelled in, trumping that of the Anglo-Saxons at the time of the occupation. Still, home life, household architecture, and decoration were out of the question until the Normans taken over the general population. Castles were more basic constructions and often built on blustery hills, where their tenants devoted both time and space to practicing offense and defense, while monasteries were considerable stone buildings, regularly positioned in the widest, most fruitful hollows. Peaceful pursuits such as gardening were out of place in these destitute citadels. The best example of the early Anglo-Norman style of architecture existent in modern times is Berkeley Castle. It is said that the keep was created during William the Conqueror's time. A significant terrace serves as a hindrance to intruders who would attempt to mine the walls of the building. On one of these parapets is a scenic bowling green covered in grass and enclosed by an aged hedge of yew that has been shaped into coarse battlements.

Water Delivery Strategies in Ancient Rome

Previous to 273, when the 1st elevated aqueduct, Aqua Anio Vetus, was constructed in Rome, residents who lived on hillsides had to travel further down to collect their water from natural sources. When aqueducts or springs weren’t easily accessible, people dwelling at higher elevations turned to water removed from underground or rainwater, which was made possible by wells and cisterns.Water Delivery Strategies Ancient Rome 9421745325437246365.jpg To deliver water to Pincian Hill in the early sixteenth century, they applied the brand-new strategy of redirecting the current from the Acqua Vergine aqueduct’s underground network. Throughout the time of its initial building and construction, pozzi (or manholes) were situated at set intervals alongside the aqueduct’s channel. Whilst these manholes were manufactured to make it simpler and easier to manage the aqueduct, it was also possible to use containers to extract water from the channel, which was exercised by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he invested in the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. Although the cardinal also had a cistern to accumulate rainwater, it couldn't produce enough water. Fortunately, the aqueduct sat just below his property, and he had a shaft established to give him accessibility.

The Fountains

As initially developed, fountains were designed to be functional, guiding water from creeks or reservoirs to the citizens of towns and villages, where the water could be utilized for cooking food, washing, and drinking. To make water flow through a fountain until the late 1800’s, and generate a jet of water, demanded gravity and a water source such as a creek or reservoir, located higher than the fountain. Inspirational and impressive, prominent water fountains have been designed as memorials in nearly all cultures. Crude in design, the first water fountains didn't look much like contemporary fountains. Designed for drinking water and ceremonial purposes, the initial fountains were basic carved stone basins. Pure stone basins as fountains have been recovered from 2000 BC. The spray of water appearing from small jets was pushed by gravity, the sole power source designers had in those days. These original fountains were created to be functional, usually situated along reservoirs, streams and waterways to furnish drinking water.Fountains 1589625076449.jpg The people of Rome began constructing elaborate fountains in 6 BC, most of which were metallic or stone masks of wildlife and mythological representations. Water for the community fountains of Rome was brought to the city via a complex system of water aqueducts.